Achilles Tendon Tear Treatments
Many of the muscles that move the foot are found in the lower leg. These muscles attach via tendons to various bones in the foot. The main muscles that move the foot downwards (plantar flex the foot) and propel the body forward are the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles). These muscles are connected to the heel bone (calcaneus) by the "rope like" Achilles tendon. Achilles tendon rupture is the term used to describe a complete tear of the Achilles tendon. The most common site for Achilles tendon rupture to occur is an area 2 - 6 cm. (1 - 2.5 in.) above where the tendon attaches to the calcaneus.
The Achilles tendon usually ruptures as a result of a sudden forceful contraction of the calf muscles. Activities such as jumping, lunging, or sprinting can cause undue stress on the Achilles tendon and cause it to rupture. Often there is a background of Achilles tendinitis. Direct trauma to the area, poor flexibility or weakness of the calf muscles or of the Achilles tendon and increasing age are some of the other factors that are associated with an Achilles tendon rupture.
Although it's possible to have no signs or symptoms with an Achilles tendon rupture, most people experience pain, possibly severe, and swelling near your heel, an inability to bend your foot downward or "push off" the injured leg when you walk, an inability to stand on your toes on the injured leg, a popping or snapping sound when the injury occurs. Seek medical advice immediately if you feel a pop or snap in your heel, especially if you can't walk properly afterward.
Most Achilles tendon ruptures occur in people between 30 and 50 years old and such injuries are often sport-related. If you suspect an Achilles injury, it is best to apply ice, elevate the leg, and see a specialist. One of the first things the doctor will do is evaluate your leg and ankle for swelling and discoloration. You may feel tenderness and the doctor may detect a gap where the ends of the tendon are separated. In addition to X-rays, the calf squeeze, or Thompson test, will be performed to confirm an Achilles tendon rupture. With your toe joint enlargement knee bent, the doctor will squeeze the muscles of your calf and if your tendon is intact the foot and ankle will automatically flex downward. In the case of a ruptured Achilles there will be no movement in the foot and ankle during the test.
Non Surgical Treatment
Once the Achilles tendon is partially damaged, one should exercise great care. The risk of rupture is high and if pain is associated with walking, one should consult with an orthopedic surgeon or a sports physician. A complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is never treated at home. It is important to understand that there are no minerals, nutrients, or herbs to treat Achilles tendon injury and any delay just worsens the recovery.
Most published reports on surgical treatment fall into 3 different surgical approach categories that include the following: direct open, minimally invasive, and percutaneous. In multiple studies surgical treatment has demonstrated a lower rate of re-rupture compared to nonoperative treatment, but surgical treatment is associated with a higher rate of wound healing problems, infection, postoperative pain, adhesions, and nerve damage. Most commonly the direct open approach involves a 10- to 18-cm posteromedial incision. The minimally invasive approach has a 3- to 10-cm incision, and the percutaneous approach involves repairing the tendon through multiple small incisions. As with nonsurgical treatment there exists wide variation in the reported literature regarding postoperative treatment protocols. Multiple comparative studies have been published comparing different surgical approaches, repair methods, or postoperative treatment protocols.